Cocktail Recipes, Spirits, and Local Bars

Town Decides to Rename Itself Reubenville for Free Sandwiches

Town Decides to Rename Itself Reubenville for Free Sandwiches

Apparently Arby's marketing tactic worked on the town of Coeymans, New York

Remember when that "breastaurant" owner renamed a city "Bikini, Texas"? Well, that's happened again, except this time it's less raunchy.

In the latest media run for Arby's, the chain decided to hold a contest to see if any town or city would rename itself Reubenville in order to win the "Reubenville Challenge" and get 5,000 free Reuben sandwiches from Arby's.

It looks like one town took the bait; according to representatives, the town of Coeymans, N.Y., decided to rename itself "Reubenville" for the month of April, and it's pretty legitimate. Town board member Tom Dolan confirmed to The Daily Meal that yes, they did pass a resolution temporarily naming Coeymans "Reubenville." "Who wouldn’t want to name their town after a sandwich with corned beef and sauerkraut?" he said over the phone. The city is now getting 5,000 free Reuben sandwiches, although the closest Arby's is, according to Dolan, still 15 minutes away (and not even in Coeymans' city limits).

Even non-Reubenville residents can get a free Reuben sandwich from Arby's this weekend; www.arbys.com is offering a coupon for a buy one get one free deal. The 7,500 Reubenvillians, in the meantime, can rest assured knowing they'll go back to being Coeymans after April.


Executive Summary on Starbucks

For the second week within accounting, Team B was assigned to choose an organization, and to research the annual financial reports from the last two-three fiscal years. As a Team, we have chosen to discuss and analyze the vast coffee franchise called Starbuck’s. While using Starbucks' balance sheet, income statements, and cash flow chart, this will help us to determine how well Starbuck’s is doing with their consumers, and throughout the globe. So now let us start off with explaining a brief history for this successful company, along with all the data and records we were able to retrieve.

A small coffee shop was opened in 1971 by three men, Zev Siegl, Gordon Bowker, and Jerry Baldwin in Seattle’s Pike Place Market they named the shop Starbucks Coffee, Tea, and Spices. The retail company was successful in the sale of tea, spices, ground coffee, and roasted whole bean coffee. However, in 1980 Siegl sold his part of the business. In 1982, Baldwin hired Howard Schultz, a salesperson of plastic, into the Starbucks venture. After experiencing popular espresso bars in Milan while on a business trip Schultz discovers the potential for Seattle. Finally, Schultz shares his discovery of lattes and mochas with Seattle and the city instantly become fans of coffee (Gourmet Coffee Zone.com, 2008).

Currently, Starbucks is enjoyed by millions of customers daily in over 50 countries and have facilities in more than 16,000 locations. Interestingly, the Starbucks name birth from the classic American novel, Moby Dick, written by the author Herman Melville.

After the mid 80’s Starbucks continued to be a success to coffee drinking through-out the United States and eventually, the world. Following is the history of Starbucks road to success (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).

• 1987 - Starbucks opens stores in Vancouver and Chicago.

• 1988 - Full-time and part-time employees are offered full health benefits

• 1992 - Starbucks’ common stock is being traded under the trading symbol “SBUX” on the NASDAQ.

• 1996 - Begins selling bottled coffee drink through Pepsi-Cola.

▪ Japan store opens as the first store outside of North America

• 1997 - The Starbucks Foundations is established to benefit the local community.

• 1999 - Promotes to grow coffee in an environmentally safe way by partnering with Conservation International.

• 2002 - Becomes licensed to sell coffee as Fair Trade Certified in other countries.

• 2009 - Starbucks is the world’s largest buyer of Fair Trade Certified coffee (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).

The Starbucks mission is “to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a time” (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).

Starbucks has an Audit and Compliance Committee (the “Committee”) to oversee internal audits, external audits, and accounting and financial reporting activities performed by Starbucks Corporation. The Committee is responsible for monitoring the company by reviewing Starbucks financial information that is provided to internal and external users. However, the Committee ensures that integrity is practiced on the board of directors. Furthermore, if needed, independent auditors are not restricted but accountable to the Committee. Ultimately, the Committee carries the responsibility to provide advice and guidance to board of directors to avoid oversight (Starbucks Corporation, 2010). In 1992, Starbucks first day of trading began at $17 per share and closed at $21.50 per share. Starbucks Corporations is listed under the ticker symbol “SBUX” on the NASDAQ (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).

As of September 28, 2008, Starbucks Corporation’s cash and cash equivalent was $269.8 million for the end of the annual reporting period for 2008. At the end of the fiscal year of 2009.


HOW TO WRITE A MENU DESCRIPTION

Descriptions can be split into parts, and their order matters

A menu description can be split into three parts, and you should usually present them in the following order:

Place the main ingredients of the dish first, starting with the most expensive and important ingredients (and make sure to include any that commonly cause allergic reactions). The reason for this is that guests read as little as they can when deciding what they want to order, and the main thing they want to know about your dish is what&rsquos in it.

This phrase refers to language whose primary purpose is to sell the dish.

Example in the suggested order: 1 > 2 > 3
Chicken Pot Pie &ndash Roast chicken, baby carrots, spring peas topped with grandma&rsquos flakey pie crust.

To keep the menu from being monotonous, occasionally reverse the order of the second and third parts and place the &ldquosell copy&rdquo before your ingredients. There is no rule dictating which dishes should have this less common presentation &ndash just go with what you think makes the most sense in your situation.

Example in reverse order: 1 > 3 > 2
Chicken Pot Pie &ndash Grandma&rsquos flakey pie crust filled with roast chicken, baby carrots, and spring peas.

As you read on, you will learn how to optimize each part of a description. The topics presented below roughly follow the 1 > 2 > 3 order displayed above, but note that some of the advice can apply to more than one part of the description.

Don&rsquot force customers to read the description

A dish&rsquos name should clearly identify the dish so that guests don&rsquot have to read the description in order to obtain this basic information. When customers can easily determine if they want to read further by just reading the name of the item, it saves them time. To achieve this level of clarity, you often must mention the specific item in the dish name. For instance, instead of writing &ldquoJoe&rsquos Special&rdquo and then describing this mystery dish, you would write &ldquoJoe&rsquos Lasagna Special,&rdquo which allows customers to quickly decide if they want more detail.

Reinforce how the item is categorized on the menu

When a menu has a section with a heading such as &ldquoSalad,&rdquo some think that it is OK to list dish names such as &ldquoGreek&rdquo and &ldquoBuffalo Chicken&rdquo under this heading because it will be obvious that both dishes are types of salads. Instead of relying on customers to always make this connection, make things easier for them by sprinkling the word &ldquosalad&rdquo into some of the dish titles in order to reinforce to customers that they are reading through the salad section: e.g., &ldquoGreek Salad&rdquo and &ldquoBuffalo Chicken Salad.&rdquo Not every dish within a given section has to include the section heading in its name, but seeing such obvious dish names frequently within a menu section makes it easier for customers to read through the menu and make decisions.

Add value to an ingredient by stating its geographic origin

When you add value to an ingredient, it is no longer just a commodity that everyone else has, and one way to do this is to inform guests of where the item came from. For example, the following descriptions of the same menu item add more value to the ingredient as you read from left to right:

Midwest Pork Chops > Iowa Pork Chops > Muscatine, Iowa, Pork Chops

As you move from left to right, the term before the ingredient &ldquoPork Chops&rdquo gets increasingly specific (the Midwestern region of the U.S. contains the state of Iowa, and Iowa contains a city named Muscatine), and this further differentiates the dish vs. its more generic competition. To obtain such geographic information, you can ask vendors and distributors about the origins of the food that you buy, and if you are buying from local farms, you can include these locations in your descriptions. Most items you buy come from a specific farming area or small town, and the smaller the town, the more interesting the menu description.

Examples:
Strawberry Sorbet &ndash Hidden Valley Fruit Farm strawberries, shortbread crumb, and cream.

Deviled Eggs &ndash Baffoni Farm egg, bacon lardon, and crispy shallots.

Short Ribs &ndash Soy-braised Blackbird Farm short ribs, shiitake and snap pea risotto.

This method of adding value allows you to avoid resorting to an uninspiring list of ingredients, and it can also easily be applied to dish names (the first part of the description).

Mention brand names

In addition to stating the geographical origin of your dish, if an ingredient is supplied by a well-known and respected brand, you can also mention the brand name in your descriptions. Adding a few brand names among your menu descriptions makes it appear that you are buying &ldquothe good stuff,&rdquo which in your guests&rsquo minds raises the value of all your dishes.

Describe how unfamiliar ingredients taste

If you write something in a description that people don&rsquot understand, they won&rsquot order that item. Listing the name of an uncommon ingredient without any supporting information alienates the many people who are not familiar with it, and people in groups (think business lunches, people on dates, etc.) are often embarrassed to ask for clarification because it can make them look uncultured.

If you write something in a description that people don&rsquot understand, they won&rsquot order that item.

You can overcome the pitfalls of listing an uncommon ingredient by including three pieces of information in your description:

1. The name of the ingredient
2. A description of how the ingredient tastes
3. The food category to which the ingredient belongs

For instance, by writing &ldquobuttery cacio bufala cheese,&rdquo you not only name an ingredient that not everyone is familiar with (cacio bufala), but you also let readers know that the uncommon ingredient is a type of cheese (the food category) and that it has a buttery taste. This description allows customers to be far more confident and comfortable when ordering a dish. Note that there is no correct order for these three pieces of information. Simply include all three of them and go with the order that makes sense in your situation.

Examples:
Shakshuka &ndash Farm egg baked in sauce of sweet tomatoes, chiles, and smoky cumin.
(Category: Egg Taste: Sweet

Blistered Shishito Peppers &ndash Bite-sized mild peppers with grilled lemon and flake salt.
(Category: Peppers Taste: Mild)

Provide a &ldquobackstory&rdquo

As I noted earlier, &ldquosell copy&rdquo usually follows the ingredients in your menu descriptions, and it has the task of &ldquoselling&rdquo your items outside of any interest generated by the ingredients. An ingenious way to create this copy is to share the &ldquobackstory,&rdquo or history, behind the dish.

I don&rsquot see this effective technique used in restaurants very often, and you don&rsquot need to be a copywriter to generate such content. In fact, the best place to start is with the chef. In my experience, chefs are usually pressed for time and would much rather cook than write, so try to pull the backstory for each menu item out of the chef verbally while using a dictation device. You can then transcribe the comments and edit them down for inclusion in the menu description.

Here are some examples of the kind of content that you can generate from this exercise: The chef used this recipe for his own wedding reception. The recipe is a long-held family secret. The chef experienced this dish while on vacation. The chef&rsquos grandmother created it. The length of time the item has been on the menu. Why the recipe is worthy of being on the menu vs. the many other options the chef could have chosen.

Note that the geographic origin of certain ingredients (a factor mentioned earlier in this article) can also be part of the backstory.

Examples:
Grandma Dot&rsquos Kickin&rsquo Cornbread &ndash Sweet summer corn, stone-ground cornmeal, and a touch of jalapeno. Cornbread with a kick of personality &ndash just like Grandma Dot.

South Street Chicken Wings &ndash Smokey peach chipotle barbecue sauce, smothered crispy chicken wings. A summertime favorite for years at the South Street block party!

A backstory takes the dish out of the &ldquosame old, same old&rdquo realm. It gives your menu its own personality and allows the dish to stand on its own and become even more appealing. And remember that this method is as valid for a high-end, full-service restaurant as it is for a fast-food restaurant.

The backstory is critical when creating a description, and its importance extends beyond the menu. Having a written backstory behind a menu item also allows your servers to better understand the item, to be more confident in suggesting it, and to sell it better. In some cases a dish&rsquos backstory can become a legend in your restaurant.

Use photographs with great caution

Using food photographs on your menu is a way to visually &ldquodescribe&rdquo your menu dish. Guests like them because pictures allow them to avoid reading, and when used very sparingly (just one per menu page, for example) they can significantly increase sales of a given item.

That said, the use of photographs comes with large downsides. To start with, pictures cheapen a menu, which limits pricing flexibility. In addition, professional food photographs are often more perfect than reality, and when the dish arrives looking somewhat different, customers can be disappointed. Along the same lines, the unrealistic expectations built up by a professional photograph can extend into the realm of taste, and that&rsquos definitely not something you want to compete against.

Use evocative language

Your menu descriptions should be more than just factually accurate. They should also create desire within the reader, and to do this your descriptions should engage readers&rsquo imaginations so that they want to experience what they are reading about.

Examples (Uninspired)
&bull Pork Chop &ndash Served with apple braised cabbage and jus.

&bull Chocolate Cake &ndash Served with raspberries and whipped cream.

Rewritten Examples (Evocative)
&bull Wood-Fire-Grilled Pork Chop &ndash Double-cut, bone-in Berkshire pork chop, sweet & sour braised cabbage, apple cider jus.

&bull 5-Layer Chocolate Cake &ndash Espresso-soaked chocolate sponge cake, milk chocolate ganache filling, raspberry coulis, and fluffy whipped cream.

There are no inherently good or bad words to use in your descriptions your choices depend on your particular situation and what you feel is the best reflection of what you are trying to accomplish.

There are no inherently good or bad words to use in your descriptions&hellip

Here is a list of words and phrases to help jump-start your creativity:

aromatic complex drizzled encrusted
fit for the gods grass-fed house-made infused
juiciness knead local meticulously
nosh organic pan-seared quintessential
roasted seasonal time-tested unbeatable
vibrant wild-caught yummy zesty

The importance of language is underscored by the following:

1. The financial impact of a well-worded menu description can be highly significant. In his book Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think, Professor Brian Wansink of Cornell University tells of a study he was involved in, in which a cafeteria attempting to enhance its image and sales rotated the same dishes for six weeks, alternating between basic and descriptive dish titles. The descriptive titles led to an impressive 27 percent increase in sales over their basic counterparts.

2. Language can impact a guest&rsquos impression of how a dish tastes. No kidding. In the same study, participants reviewed the meals that used the descriptive dish titles more positively than the identical meals that used the basic titles.

Your words matter. Take them seriously.

Adjust the length of your descriptions to your advantage

There is no ideal length for a description, but here is some guidance on this topic:

1. Guests spend a limited amount of time reading the menu, so be practical.

2. Ask yourself: Are your hamburgers described in more detail than your steaks? Doesn&rsquot it make sense to spend more time describing the steaks rather than the burgers?

&hellipthe length of a description should reflect an item&rsquos importance&hellip

In other words, the length of a description should reflect an item&rsquos importance, so save your longest descriptions for the most popular and profitable dishes and limit other dishes to more basic descriptions. Failure to follow this rule is the most common problem I see when it comes to menu descriptions, and it is relatively easy to fix.

When writing in two languages, make them easy to navigate

When your audience does not share a common language, you can reduce the amount of time that guests spend searching through your menu by having two separate menus (one in language A and the other in language B) or by creating graphic cues that allow guests to easily navigate to their desired language &ndash two possibilities include distinguishing the languages through font color or italic text.

Write your own descriptions

You should use a proofreader after you put your menu together in order to catch mistakes, but I advise against hiring a writer or an advertising team to write your descriptions. Doing so can result in a menu that is unrecognizable to the chef who created the dishes because outside writers may not understand the heart and soul of the restaurant. Instead, the operator or person who put the menu together is the right person for the job.

Keeping the writing in-house can help give the menu a much desired personality &ndash and note that this personality is more important than perfect grammar. I will often joke that if you misspell a word on your menu, just make sure that you do so three times so that it &ldquobecomes&rdquo a word.

&hellipI advise against hiring a writer or an advertising team to write your descriptions.

Menu descriptions should come from your heart and soul, and they should feel right to you. Both guests and workers will be able to spot a contrived menu, and that negative impression will end up hurting your establishment.

Because of their larger employee base, chain restaurants must try harder to find their heart and soul when writing menu descriptions. Also, for a franchise organization, if the franchisees don&rsquot understand the descriptions, they won&rsquot believe in them. These issues are beyond the scope of this article, but note that the problems created by having many locations to work with are not insurmountable.


The Funniest Town Name in All 50 States

You can send your Christmas wish list to Santa Claus, Indiana, or get a refill in Hot Coffee, Mississippi. Whether honoring its founders, a local landmark, or its reputation for rowdy bar-brawling, the funniest town names in all 50 states show a sense of humor and personality.

1. ALABAMA // SCREAMER

Screamer, an unincorporated community in southeastern Alabama, has a noisy history. According to a local historian, the name may have two origins. In one version of the story, it comes from the fact that 19th century Native Americans used to loudly heckle white train travelers as they passed by what was then a reservation. The "screaming" could have also referred to the din made by local bears, panthers, and wildcats.

2. ALASKA // UNALASKA

Weston Renoud, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

Don’t let the name fool you Unalaska is as Alaskan as it comes. With a little more than 4500 residents, Unalaska is the largest city in the Aleutian Islands. Originally, Unangan residents named it Agunalaksh, a word that means "near the peninsula." As Russian fur traders arrived, the spelling morphed into Ounalashka, which eventually became Unalaska.

3. ARIZONA // WHY

Why call a town "Why?" This teeny-tiny community near the U.S.-Mexico border is named after the Y-shaped intersection of two nearby highways. But because of an Arizona law requiring place names have at least three letters, "Y" became the much more existential "Why."

4. ARKANSAS // SMACKOVER

This town of 1800 people in southern Arkansas, at one point one of the nation’s biggest oil producers, was settled by French trappers in the early 19th century. The name Smackover may have come from the French name for the local creek, Chemin Couvert, which means "covered way"—and "sumac couvert" means a covering of sumac trees, a local plant. Alternate theories trace the name back to the legend of oil streaming "smack over the derrick" or a settler jumping "smack over the creek," according to the state’s website.

5. CALIFORNIA // ROUGH AND READY

Isaac Crumm, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The early residents of Rough and Ready, California, were prepared to get down and dirty for their independence. Named after a mining company with the same moniker, the town—with a current population of about 1581—was the first to secede from the Union and become its own “republic” in 1850 as a protest against mining taxes, prohibition mandates, and laws that weren’t enforced. Though their rebellion was laughably short-lived (the town rejoined the United States three months later), its residents still pay homage to Rough and Ready’s spirited past with a celebration on the last Saturday in June.

6. COLORADO // NO NAME

What started out as a temporary solution has become a point of pride for locals (currently fewer than 200 in number) in No Name, Colorado. According to reports, a government official first marked a newly constructed exit off I-70 with a sign reading “No Name” as a placeholder. By the time officials got around to officially labeling it, “No Name” had the support of the community and it stuck. Visitors can find the spot near the No Name tunnels, No Name Creek, and the No Name hiking trail.

7. CONNECTICUT // HAZARDVILLE

Hazardville, Connecticut, began as a 19th-century industrial village that made gunpowder. Thankfully, that’s not how it got its moniker: The town was named after Colonel Augustus George Hazard, who purchased and expanded the company in 1837.

8. DELAWARE // CORNER KETCH

It’s rumored that Corner Ketch—an unincorporated community in New Castle County, Delaware—got its name from a rough-and-tumble local bar, whose patrons were so quarrelsome that townspeople would warn strangers, "They'll ketch ye at the corner."

9. FLORIDA // TWO EGG

Two Egg, Florida, got its name during the Great Depression. According to local lore, two young boys were so strapped for cash that they paid a local shopkeeper for sugar by giving them two eggs. These make-do business transactions occurred so regularly that patrons began referring to the establishment as a “two egg store.” Eventually, the name caught on with traveling salesmen, who spread it to other towns.

10. GEORGIA // CLIMAX

Founded in the 1880s, the tiny town of Climax, Georgia, got its name from its location: It sits at the highest point on the railroad between Savannah and the Chattahoochee River.

11. HAWAII // VOLCANO

LDELD, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

A cozy little burg near Hilo, Volcano is adjacent to several volcano hot spots. (Sorry.) You can walk the dormant Kilauea Iki Trail, the site of a 1959 eruption, and then stop by the Lava Rock Café for a coffee before heading to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

12. IDAHO // SLICKPOO

Near Culdesac, Idaho, sits the multiple-house assembly of Slickpoo, a slice of real estate that may barely qualify as a town but was once a bustling village. Originally the site of a Catholic mission, it was said to have been gifted to the missionaries by landowner Josiah Slickpoo.

13. ILLINOIS // SANDWICH

No, it’s not named after the cold-cut concoction. Originally called Almon after land developer Almon Cage when it was founded in 1855, Sandwich got its name when a train stop liaison named it after his hometown of Sandwich, New Hampshire. It still capitalizes on the connotation, though: The town holds a Sandwich Festival annually.

14. INDIANA // SANTA CLAUS

Doug Kerr, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

It feels like Christmas every day in Santa Claus, Indiana. But the origin of the name wasn’t quite so festive. As the story goes, the town was first named Santa Fe. In 1896, when the town wanted to secure a post office, postal officials told it to pick another name since Santa Fe was already taken. Someone thought Santa Claus was an acceptable alternative, and the post office agreed. To their dismay, children began mailing letters to Santa Claus, Indiana, with regularity.

15. IOWA // WHAT CHEER

A former coal mining town in the southeast of the state, What Cheer was christened Petersburg by Peter Britton, who settled here in the 1850s. But enterprising shop owner Joseph Andrews, who created the town post office, suggested calling it What Cheer, possibly after an old English greeting. Britton protested, but the name stuck. Today What Cheer has about 600 residents—down from a peak of 5000—and hosts a seasonal flea market and musical events at its opera house.

16. KANSAS // GAS

The wags in Gas know what you're thinking. "You just passed Gas." "Gas Kan." "Get Gas!" The jokes write themselves. Gas got its name when, no surprise, natural gas was discovered in the area in 1898. Farmer E.K. Taylor promptly sold 60 acres of his land to industrial interests and subdivided the rest into lots, laying the groundwork for Gas (a.k.a. Gas City). Today it's home to around 600 people.

17. KENTUCKY // BUGTUSSLE

Brian Stansberry, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 4.0

The name of this tiny hamlet on the Kentucky-Tennessee border is an homage to, you guessed it, the local bug population. The town’s oldest residents say that when workers helped out during the harvest, they would sleep in barns—on hay that was infested with doodlebugs. Legend has it that the workers stayed so long that the bugs grew big enough to “tussle” for the prime napping spots.

18. LOUISIANA // UNEEDUS

The Lake Superior Piling Company established a settlement of model farms here in the 1920s, bringing prosperity to this corner of rural Louisiana. The company’s owners tweaked their corporate slogan, “you need us,” into the town’s new name—and apparently, the feeling was mutual. Residents allegedly founded another model farm community nearby and dubbed it Weneedu.

19. MAINE // BURNT PORCUPINE

It’s easy to imagine where this island off the coast of Maine got its unusual name—just squint at it. Located near Bar Harbor and Acadia National Park, Burnt Porcupine has nearby sister islands with equally intriguing names: Bald Porcupine, Long Porcupine, and Sheep Porcupine.

20. MARYLAND // BORING

The village of Boring could have avoided all of the jokes if they had just stuck with the town’s original name—Fairview. But there are a lot of other Fairviews in the U.S., so when a post office was established in the village in 1880, the postal service requested a rename. Residents voted to honor their first postmaster, David J. Boring—and he surely thought the recognition was anything but.

21. MASSACHUSETTS // BELCHERTOWN

While we had hoped that Belchertown was named for the aftermath of a particularly tasty meal, the real story is a bit less delicious: It’s named after Jonathan Belcher, a colonial governor of Massachusetts.

22. MICHIGAN // HELL

Yes, there is a Hell on Earth, and it’s 15 miles northwest of Ann Arbor. There are several stories floating around about how this name came to be, but the one the town itself declares official is this: In the 1830s, the town settler, George Reeves, made a deal with local farmers to trade his homemade whiskey for the grain they grew. When the farmer’s wives knew their husbands were off dealing with Reeves, they were known to remark, “He’s gone to hell again.” The name stuck.

23. MINNESOTA // NIMROD

Lorie Shaull, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

It’s a pretty exclusive group of Minnesotans who can lay claim to being an official Nimrod: just 69 at last count. Though the town takes up just one square mile of the Gopher State, it’s got one big claim to fame: It’s the hometown of Dick Stigman, a pro baseball player who pitched for the Minnesota Twins, Cleveland Indians, and Boston Red Sox in the 1960s. As for the name itself, it’s a Biblical reference. In the book of Genesis, Nimrod is described as “a mighty hunter before the Lord” and is credited with overseeing the construction of the Tower of Babel.

24. MISSISSIPPI // HOT COFFEE

Back in the horse-and-carriage days, the spot where the town of Hot Coffee, Mississippi, now sits marked the midpoint between Natchez, Mississippi, and Mobile, Alabama—two popular travel destinations. In the late 1800s an inn was erected and, recognizing a good business opportunity when he saw one, a man named L.N. Davis built a store to replenish the supplies of weary travelers and hung a coffee pot outside, which advertised "the best hot coffee around.” His secret? He used spring water to brew New Orleans beans, then sweetened the drink with molasses drippings. Though the store is no longer there, Davis’s java made enough of an impression to become the town’s namesake.

25. MISSOURI // TIGHTWAD

Most legends surrounding the town’s name tend to trace it to a postmaster who was upset with a cheapskate watermelon farmer who sold a promised melon out from under him for an extra 50-cent profit. But these days, the main draw to this tiny town in central Missouri is its bank—customers from all over the country open accounts here just to be able to send checks with the Tightwad logo on them.

26. MONTANA // PRAY

While it’s true that you’ll likely spend more time staring at the heavens while in Big Sky Country, the town of Pray, Montana, wasn’t named as a religious suggestion. Founded in 1907, it was named for then-state representative Charles Nelson Pray.

27. NEBRASKA // MAGNET

z2amiller, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

After mapping out a town in northeast Nebraska, settler B.E. Smith was tasked with naming it. He wanted an attractive name for the community that would draw visitors across its borders, so he christened it Magnet in 1893. Today the locale is home to about 75 residents.

28. NEVADA // JIGGS

About 30 miles south of Elko, Nevada, sits the small town of Jiggs. In 1918, businessman Albert Hankins owned the local hotel, dance hall, and general store—which basically meant he owned the whole town. Looking for a new name for the place, he took a suggestion from his kids. “Jiggs” was the top hat-wearing, Irish-American protagonist of their favorite comic strip Bringing Up Father. Following the name change, the women’s organization in town dubbed itself Maggie’s Club after the character’s wife.

29. NEW HAMPSHIRE // SANDWICH

The Fourth Earl of Sandwich, John Montague, did more than invent a lunchtime staple. In 1763, he chartered a town between the Lakes Region and the White Mountains of New Hampshire. And just like the edible kind of sandwich, the town of Sandwich was named after him. The earl also lent his title to the nearby Sandwich mountain range and Sandwich dome.

30. NEW JERSEY // LOVELADIES

Lauren Spinelli

The town of Loveladies, New Jersey, was actually named after a man, not a group of women. Located on Long Beach Island, it got its start as one of the life-saving stations that appeared on the Jersey shore in the 1870s. The station borrowed its name from a nearby island owned by Thomas Lovelady, a local hunter and sportsman. When the community grew into a town it tested out several new titles, including Club House and Long Beach Park. In 1952, the early name of Loveladies became official.

31. NEW MEXICO // CANDY KITCHEN

Sandwiched between Zuni and Navajo reservations in western New Mexico, Candy Kitchen Ranch purportedly got its name when a local moonshine distiller needed a front to hide his illicit operations during Prohibition. To secure the sugar necessary to concoct barrels of hooch, the moonshiner established a confectionery that produced pinion nut candy on the side. Candy Kitchen isn’t the only sweet-toothed locale in this neck of rural New Mexico, either: 85 miles down the dusty trail sits a place called Pie Town!

32. NEW YORK // NEVERSINK

The old town of Neversink is currently sunk under about 175 feet of water. Named for the Neversink River, the longest tributary of the Delaware River, the city of 2000 was one of the unlucky Catskill towns flooded in the 1950s to create reservoirs that would provide water to New York City. Luckily, the town relocated in the 1950s shortly after its old Main Street was sunk for good. Not all neighboring locales were so fortunate, though. The flooding forced locals to give a bittersweet goodbye to the now-underwater town of … Bittersweet.

33. NORTH CAROLINA // WHYNOT

G Davis, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Around 1860, residents living in the fertile heart of central North Carolina had no name for their home. But when the United States Post Office planned to put down roots in the area, the townspeople convened to decide on a name. Debate ensued: Why not name it this? Why not name it that? The discussion dragged on until one frustrated local butted in and said, “Why not name the town Why Not and let’s go home?” Ambivalence won the day.

34. NORTH DAKOTA // CANNON BALL

Cannon Ball, North Dakota gets its name not from a battle, but from geological curiosities called concretions. Millions of years ago, sediment naturally cemented around plants or shells in the Peace Garden State and hardened into rock, forming unusually perfect spheres that—you guessed it—resemble cannonballs. While these round rocks dot the local Cannonball River, you can ogle at more if you drive 170 miles west to the northern stretches of Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

35. OHIO // KNOCKEMSTIFF

Though nobody can quite pinpoint when the town of Knockemstiff acquired its odd name, they can at least agree that it certainly earned it. Most of the stories about the area’s early days, before it got its foreboding name, involve bar brawls, moonshine, and other types of delinquency. The most famous origin tale, though, centers on the advice of a preacher. When approached by a woman asking him how to keep her cheating husband home and faithful, the preacher responded simply: “Knock ‘em stiff.” Take that advice however you want. The town received mainstream attention in 2008 when author Donald Ray Pollock, a native of Knockemstiff, published a book of 18 short stories that shine a gritty light on life in this rough Midwestern community.

36. OKLAHOMA // GENE AUTRY

The community formerly known as Berwyn, Oklahoma, took on the name of the famous singing cowboy after the man himself came to town and purchased a 1200-acre ranch that he would turn into the headquarters of his Flying A Ranch Rodeo. A few years after the purchase, Cecil Crosby, the deputy sheriff of Carter County, where Berwyn was located, suggested the town change its name to honor Autry. The town’s 227 residents all signed a petition in favor of the change, with the post office and railroad agreeing to alter their names soon after. On November 16, 1941, the town of Berwyn officially became Gene Autry, Oklahoma. Though Autry sold the Flying A Ranch after World War II, the town that bears his name still recognizes the late cowboy actor with a museum and film festival in his honor.

37. OREGON // ZIGZAG

The unincorporated community of Zigzag, Oregon, is a scenic spot that rests in the middle of Mount Hood National Forest. The community itself is named after the Zigzag River, which drains from the Zigzag Glacier. Though the history of the name is unknown, it might be traced back to Joel Palmer, a pioneer of the Oregon territory, who described the erratic movements needed to descend through a ravine near Mount Hood: “The manner of descending is to turn directly to the right, go zigzag for about one hundred yards, then turn short round, and go zigzag until you come under the place where you started from then to the right, and so on, until you reach the bottom.” Though it was used to describe one particular ravine, the name stuck, and it eventually morphed into becoming a local community. In addition to a town, river, and glacier, Zigzag also lends its name to a volcanic mountain and canyon.

38. PENNSYLVANIA // INTERCOURSE

Ken Lund, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

The Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, village of Intercourse knows what you’re thinking. “It’s okay, you can giggle!” the village’s website says. “We’re happy with our name. It’s the perfect conversation starter.” Just how did the town come by its unusual moniker, which it adopted in 1814? There are several possibilities. According to one theory, the name came from the fact that the town—which was originally called Cross Keys after a local tavern when it was founded in 1754—was at the intersection of two major roads. Another theory posits that the name is an evolution from “Entercourse” because, at the time, the town was located next to the entrance of a racetrack. The final theory revolves around the original meaning of the word intercourse: “connection or dealings between persons or groups exchange especially of thoughts or feelings.” The sexual meaning of the word intercourse didn’t come into popular use until the late 18th century. Intercourse isn’t the only Pennsylvania town name likely to delight 12-year-olds: Less than 20 minutes up the road is the town Blue Ball. It was named after an 1850s inn.

39. RHODE ISLAND // WOONSOCKET

The sixth largest city in Rhode Island was historically known as la ville la plus française aux États-Unis, which translates to “the most French city in the United States.” Although during the Depression three-quarters of Woonsocket’s residents were of French-Canadian descent, by the 2000 census, that number had dipped to 46.1 percent. “Woonsocket,” though, does not come from French. Historians agree that the town’s whimsical name is a corruption of a word from a Native American language, but they don’t agree on the language, much less the word, from which it derives.

40. SOUTH CAROLINA // KETCHUPTOWN

This Horry County town got its name from a country store built by Herbert Small in 1927, but not because of the condiments it sold. Every week, farmers would flock to Small’s store to “catch up” on news and gossip. As a town grew up around the store, the name stuck.

41. SOUTH DAKOTA // MUD BUTTE

Mud Butte was named for a nearby barren butte—that is, an isolated hill with steep sides and a flat top. In 1981, archeologists digging around in Mud Butte unearthed the sixth Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton ever discovered, after a local rancher finally got around to calling a museum about the dinosaur bones he’d seen jutting out of a cliff on his property for years.

42. TENNESSEE // DIFFICULT

There are competing theories on the genesis of Difficult’s name. One holds that when town residents applied for a post office, the U.S. Postal Service responded, “your name is difficult,” referring either to its pronunciation, spelling, or the handwriting on the application. Residents took the letter as an order, and accepted the name Difficult. The other theory goes that the town named itself Difficult out of spite after a postal official suggested its name was too hard to pronounce.

43. TEXAS // DING DONG

Oyoyoy, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Upon learning that the town of Ding Dong is located in Bell County, Texas, you might reasonably conclude that the two facts are related. But you’d be wrong. The community was named after its founders, the Bell family—but they’re unrelated to Governor Peter Hansborough Bell, in whose honor the county was named.

44. UTAH // MEXICAN HAT

Visitors to Mexican Hat, Utah, never have to wonder how the community got its name. The answer is as plain as day: a 60-foot-wide, sombrero-shaped rock formation on the northeast side of town.

45. VERMONT // SATANS KINGDOM

If New England town names are any indication, Satan’s been awfully busy. The prince of darkness evidently has franchises in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Vermont—the latter of which was purportedly named by a resentful settler who "expected fertile, rolling acres and had received rocks and hills instead."

46. VIRGINIA // BUMPASS

It’s pronounced “bump-iss,” the locals will tell you—if they tell you anything at all. Many Bumpass residents have developed a no-talking-to-strangers policy. Maybe they're just tired of being the butt of every joke.

47. WASHINGTON // HUMPTULIPS

SchmuckyTheCat, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

This tiny town, located about 25 miles north of Aberdeen (famous as Kurt Cobain's birthplace), was once a major logging center. Today it's better known for its unusual name, which comes from a local Native American word meaning "hard to pole." The phrase is a reference to the nearby Humptulips River, which Native Americans used to canoe by propelling themselves along with poles. The unusual-sounding term has brought the area a bit of fame: Humptulips is mentioned in the books Another Popular Roadside Attraction by Tom Robbins and The Long World by Sir Terry Pratchett.

48. WEST VIRGINIA // LICK FORK

While the name of this unincorporated community might whet your appetite, it's likely named for a nearby salt lick, which was probably more appealing to horses and wild animals than humans. There's a Lick Fork creek, road, and more nearby, so there's no shortage of photo opportunities.

49. WISCONSIN // BOSSTOWN

This Richland County, Wisconsin, community reportedly takes its name from William Henry Dosch. Nickname: Boss. According to The Romance of Wisconsin Place Names, Dosch was sick as a boy, and he got so used to the attention he received while ill that he later became rather bossy with his family. Later, he owned a store on the site of an old saw mill.

50. WYOMING // CHUGWATER

It’s Chug-water, not Chug-water. The land that this tiny Wyoming town calls home was once the territory of the Mandan tribe, whose chief was reportedly injured during a buffalo hunt and sent his son to lead the hunting party in his place. According to Chugwater’s website, the son determined that the easiest way to kill the buffalo was to drive them off the local chalk cliffs. “The word ‘chug,’” the town’s website notes, “is said to describe the noise that the buffalo or the falling chalk made when it hit the ground or fell into the water under the bluff, depending on which version of the legend you wish to believe. Indians began to call the area ‘water at the place where the buffalo chug.’” When white settlers came to the area, they used the Native American terminology for the land, dubbing it Chug Springs. A local stream was named Chugwater Creek (after Chug Springs), and that’s where the town gets its name.

By Erika Berlin, Stacy Conradt, April Daley, Michele Debczak, Kirstin Fawcett, Shaunacy Ferro, Kate Horowitz, Kat Long, Bess Lovejoy, Erin McCarthy, Jen Pinkowski, Lucas Reilly, Nico Rivero, Jake Rossen, Jay Serafino, and Jenn Wood.


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A soda cup wedding dress?

You’ve got to give this bride points for creativity. I mean, we’ve never seen a wedding dress made out of soda cups before, so hats off to her for providing us with our first soda cup dress experience. What’s more, we’ve got to give her credit for recycling, although those cups are probably new. The combination of red and white is rather Christmasy…

And as for the rosette-type things she’s got in her hands, she looks as if she won a prize for the best red pony at the gymkhana. Despite the fact that this dress isn’t to everyone’s taste, it certainly has a few unique points here and there, and there’s bound to be people out there who would wear it.


Appearance

In The Lost Hero, Leo is described by Jason to look like an "a Latino Santa's elf," with curly black hair, dark brown eyes, pointy ears, a cheerful, elf-like face, normally with a mischievous and impish smile on his face, and a diminutive stature with a slim and relatively scrawny build. He is 5'6, about the same height as Piper McLean. Leo's most notable trait is that he has a look in his eyes that makes him look like he has taken much more caffeine than the normal limit this could be linked to his ADHD, although he is described as being seriously ADHD even by demigod standards, according to Annabeth. Although, not being quite as handsome as Jason, Percy, and Frank, Leo has been called 'cute in a scrawny way' by nymphs and the Maenads from Demigod Diaries, indicating that Leo is quite good-looking for a son of the ugly god, Hephaestus. He also, 'invented scrawny'.

During House of Hades, Hazel noted Leo's curly hair had gotten longer and shaggier, his face got leaner, so he looked less like an imp and more like 'one of those willowy elves in the fairy tales". His eyes also constantly drifted, as if he was trying to spot something over the horizon.


Town Decides to Rename Itself Reubenville for Free Sandwiches - Recipes

Littlehampton is a rather nice West Sussex seaside town and about the only safe haven between Brighton and Chichester Harbour (as the yacht sails).
The pontoons there sit in the tidal Arun river, though, which mostly disappears at low tide and only offers navigable depth for a keel boat for a short time. So you need to plan your passages quite carefully. Particularly if you're departing westwards, hoping to make Portsmouth or Gosport within the day and having to round the notoriously awkward Selsey Bill with its narrow channels and dangerous rocks.
Not surprisingly it was precisely here that my auto-helm decided to pack up, providing me the luxury of rediscovering how damned difficult single-handedly tacking and gybing a full-sized yacht is without one, not to mention the difficulty of stowing sails and setting lines and fenders coming into Gosport marina without the autohelm to take charge of the boat while I worked (sorry HMS Queen Elizabeth).
Absolutely bloody typically the Solent there is the busiest sea area I've yet sailed in. Battleships, cargo ships, yachts (many racing), speedboats, ferries, ocean liners, aircraft carriers, patrol boats absolutely everything absolutely everywhere.
Funnily enough the only vessel which tried to run me down was another sodding yacht who seemed determined to pass as close to me as possible, requiring me to stay out of his way (being windward boat, though since I wasn't racing, the colregs overtaking rule takes precedence) and becoming shouty when I didn't, because I'd reduced sail so much to make it easier to non-auto-helm the boat that when the wind eased at that very moment I lost all steering.
At least he had the good grace to apologise as he raced off into the distance.

Arun District Council commissioned a series of six recipe-engraved waymarkers along Littlehampton's River Walk to reflect the historical use of the local 18th century Oyster Pond (now a boating lake) used to store oysters brought ashore as the trade grew. I include their recipes for your entertainment, maybe I'll try one or two of the less disgusting ones at some future date?
Oddly for a town at the mouth of the river Arun none of the recipes are for the traditional local dish of Arundel Mullet - served with a sauce of anchovies, lemon, red wine, onion, herbs and nutmeg.

I took no photos of Littlehampton itself (well, other than the recipe stones), so instead enjoy these views taken approaching the needles on the far side of the Isle of Wight a week later. Having repaired the auto-helm at Gosport courtesy of the nearby Raymarine dealer.

True story - it turns out to be possible to sail (well, drift) a small keel boat between the needles at the very top of a spring tide. Stupid but possible. It certainly raised eyebrows on the little fishing skiff that was casting lines in the gap. His advice, after I asked him what depth he had, was that I would be mad to attempt the passage, and expressed curiosity as to whether I couldn't bloody well see the horrible sharp rocks under his hull (actually I couldn't). So I ultra-cautiously bobbed through the empty socket left when the (actually) needle-shaped pillar Lot's Wife collapsed in a 1764 storm.

Around full flood the tide really surges through the needles, and you would be foolish indeed to venture too close, but if you pick your moment around high water on a nice day you can casually float between the surviving chalk stacks without risking too violent an impaling. At the shallowest point I had a full half a meter under the keel, though I'm not sure how close pointy bits might have approached my flanks.


New Italian deli and market coming to west Lawrence informal survey finds neighbors dislike proposed Kasold changes

An aerial view shows Kasold Drive looking northwest as it elbows near the intersection Harvard Road.

For some of us, our experience with Italian food doesn’t go much beyond spaghetti, all-you-can-eat breadsticks and a carb-induced nap that usually ends with the waiter waking you up to tell you more breadsticks have arrived. But that’s not the only type of Italian food that is popular. Lawrence is going to get a taste of an Italian deli with the opening of a new west Lawrence business.

Work is underway to convert the Miller Mart gasoline station and convenience store into Miceli Market and Deli. Jess Maceli, who co-owns the business with his wife, Renee, said he hopes to have the renovations completed by mid-October. The business is at 3300 W. Sixth St., but you may know it best as the gas station with a small kitchen that has spawned a number of successful restaurants. Restaurants such as Biemer’s BBQ, Tortas Jalisco and The Basil Leaf Cafe all got their start there.

Maceli, though, is doing this venture a little differently. He’s not renting space in the Miller Mart, but rather he’s purchased the entire building and convenience store business. He’s going to maintain the fuel service and the convenience store aspects of the business, but he’s going to add Italian meats, cheeses and other specialty Italian food products to the business. He’s going to rename the entire business Miceli Market and Deli.

Maceli has wanted to own an Italian market ever since growing up in the southeast Kansas town of Frontenac, which has a strong Italian-American heritage. It also has longtime business Pallucca’s Meat & Deli, where Maceli spent a lot of time as a kid.

“We’ve been wanting to do something like this for 10 or 12 years,” Maceli said. “We want a location where you can get a good quality lunch meat and a good quality sandwich. We’re going to try to be more unique than what you can find elsewhere.”

As for the food the store will offer, Maceli said the store has a deal to become a retailer of Volpi brand Italian meats, which is a longtime St. Louis-based company that bills itself as America’s oldest manufacturer of hand-crafted Italian meat products. That means salami will be a big part of the store’s deli case, with multiple varieties featured. Also look for prosciutto, an Italian-style dry-cured ham for capocollo, a salted cold cut that is often seasoned with wine, garlic, and a variety of herbs and spices that vary depending on the region it comes from and mortadella, which is kind of an Italian version of bologna. (Italians everywhere are swerving their Ferraris and screaming that bologna is an American version of mortadella.) An Italian sausage also will be among the meat offerings, Maceli said.

Italian cheese also will be stocked in the deli cases, so I’m assuming that means everything from provolone to gorgonzola to parmigiano-reggiano. Both the meats and cheeses will be sold by the pound.

The deli also will offer made-to-order sandwiches and panini’s, plus Maceli said there will be some pasta specials on a regular basis. He said his family has a rigatoni and meatball recipe that will be a staple of the menu. Also look for pasta salads and garden salads available to take out. Eventually, he said some dessert offerings will be added to the deli case, including homemade cannoli.

The deli also may offer up some good tales from time to time, including why the “Miceli” in the business’ name is spelled differently from the “Maceli” in Jess’ name. Jess said that goes back to his grandfather being a bootlegger during Prohibition times, and let’s just say after dealing with certain authorities, Grandpa thought it would be best to change the spelling of the family’s name a bit. The different spelling also may help eliminate some confusion in the Lawrence market. Downtown Lawrence is home to the longtime catering company Maceli’s. The catering company and the deli, however, aren’t owned by the same people and aren’t connected.

During the renovation of the deli space, the gas station and convenience store remain open. Maceli is operating that side of the business as well, and said a lot of work has gone into cleaning the facility, repainting, remodeling the bathrooms and just generally giving the location a new look.

“When we are done, the left-hand side will be the convenience store, and the right-hand side will be the market and deli,” Maceli said.

In other news and notes from around town:

• You’ll have to figure out how an Italian deli will fit into your diet. Meanwhile, residents along Kasold Drive are trying to figure out how a “road diet” will fit into their daily routines. As we have reported many times, city engineers are recommending a “road diet” for the portion of Kasold Drive between Eighth and 14th streets, which means engineers are recommending the number of lanes be reduced from two in each direction to one lane in each direction, plus a center turn lane. The idea, in part, is that the narrower road will be more friendly for pedestrians and bicyclists.

The idea hasn’t been universally loved, though. Well, City Commissioner Matthew Herbert has decided to try to get a better idea of what residents near the section of street think of the idea of a lane reductions. Herbert said on his commissioner Facebook page that he and his family started walking in the neighborhood surrounding Kasold and conducted a brief survey with residents.

As of Monday afternoon, Herbert said he had received 27 responses from residents who were against the lane-reduction proposal and only three who were in favor of it. Granted, I don’t think the survey is scientific, but it is a pretty straightforward exercise to check in with people who live near the road. I haven’t had a chance to talk with Herbert about his findings yet, but on his Facebook page he expressed surprise at how lopsided the results are.

“I figured the neighborhood was opposed,” Herbert wrote. “I suppose I just didn’t realize they were nearly unanimously opposed.”

Herbert also sought to assure residents that no decision has been made on whether the Kasold lane reductions should move forward.

“City engineers may have decided what they will present as our best option, but without commission approval, they cannot go forth,” Herbert wrote.

For what it is worth, it is unclear to me when the Kasold project will come back up for discussion. It was scheduled to be voted on just prior to Jeremy Farmer’s surprise resignation from the City Commission. The fallout from that resignation, though, caused the city to pull the item from consideration because there were more pressing items for the commission to talk about at that meeting. But the item hasn’t shown back up on an agenda since then. The item does show up on the list of “future agenda items” that the commission keeps. But the Kasold project doesn’t have a date assigned to it.


Contents

Pre-Columbian era Edit

Some historians consider that the area where the city is located nowadays was not inhabited in the Pre-Columbian era, except in the 15th century, when this valley was set aside for use for the so-called Flower Wars among the populations of Itzocan, Tepeaca, Huejotzingo, Texmelucan and Tlaxcala, with those soldiers captured being used as sacrifice victims. [7]

The foundation of Puebla begins with a letter from the bishop of Tlaxcala in 1530, Julián Garcés, to the Spanish queen outlining the need for a Spanish settlement between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. [10] According to legend, the bishop had a dream about where to build the city. In this dream, he saw a valley with woods and meadows crossed by a clear river and dotted with fresh-water springs on fertile land. While he was contemplating this scenery, he supposedly saw a group of angels descend from heaven and trace out the city. Convinced he had seen a divine vision, he celebrated Mass, and took some of the brothers out in search of the place. Five leagues from the monastery he declared they had found the place shown in the dream. This legend is the source of Puebla's original name, Puebla de los Ángeles, and its current nickname Angelópolis (literally, City of Angels). [5] [11]

Coat of arms Edit

The city's coat of arms refers to a city (the castle with 5 towers) which is protected by angels the letters K. V. refer to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (Latin: Karolus V), also referred to as Charles I of Spain below are 7 rivers which cross the city.

Colonial era Edit

The city was founded in 1531 within the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan as a Spanish city, not on the foundation of an existing indigenous city-state. The official date of foundation is 16 April 1531, however, this first attempt at settlement failed due to constant flooding of the site right next to the river. [10] Several rivers flow through the Valley of Puebla, the San Francisco, Atoyac and the Alseseca. This valley was bordered by the indigenous city-states turned colonial towns of Cholula, Tlaxcala, Huejotzingo and Tepeaca, all of which had large indigenous populations. After the city's foundation, this valley became the main route between Mexico City and Veracruz, the port on the Caribbean coast and the connection to Spain.

Puebla was an important city and region in the history of New Spain, since it was in the center region of Spanish settlement, midway between the main port and the capital, had a large indigenous population, and drew many Spanish settlers. It supplied the capital with commercially grown agricultural products and became a center of local textile production. [13] It was well connected to Mexico's North, particularly the silver-mining region around Zacatecas.

Most of the population moved away from the west bank of the San Francisco River to a higher site. A few families remained behind and renamed the original settlement Alto de San Francisco. The Spanish Crown supported the founding of Puebla as a city without encomiendas, as this system was being abused and a number of Spaniards were finding themselves landless. Puebla received its coat-of-arms in 1538, and the titles "Noble y Leal" (Noble and Loyal) in 1558, "Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad" (Very Noble and Loyal City) in 1561 and "Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad" (Very Noble and Very Loyal City) in 1576. [10]

The layout of the city is of classic Spanish design, centered on a main plaza, today called the Zócalo. This main plaza originally was rectangular, but later made square because the earlier version was considered to be ugly. Another major feature of the city were the weekly markets (tianguis), in which indigenous sellers would come with their wares and foodstuffs to sell to the population. By the mid-16th century, water was brought in to the main plaza to a newly installed fountain. By the end of the century, the city occupied 120 blocks, much of which was under construction, with the new Cathedral begun in 1575. [10] Its favorable climate and strategic location helped the city to prosper, quickly becoming the second most important city in New Spain. [5] Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla, the preeminent 17th-century composer in the New World, spent most of his life at the Cathedral, from about 1620 to 1664.

The city council of Puebla, being made up of only Spaniards, had a certain amount of autonomy in the politics of the city and the land under its jurisdiction. This council annexed the towns of Amozoc, Totimehuacán, and Cuautinchán to its territory in 1755. By 1786, Puebla's lands reached from what is now Veracruz to Guerrero states. [7] The city continued to grow and be more regulated during the 17th and 18th centuries. A new city hall was built in 1714 and the tianguis in the main plaza was replaced by wood stalls by the 1770s. The streets were paved with stone between 1786 and 1811. [10]

Commercial activity was dislodged from the main plaza completely by the early 19th century and placed in the San Francisco Parian market. Other plazas, such as the San Luis, San Antonio, El Carmen, La Concordia and Santa Inés were built. The main plaza underwent several transformations, adding statues and gardens. [10] During the Mexican War of Independence, Puebla's main role was the printing and distribution of the plan for independence. [5] In 1827, after Independence, all Spaniards (peninsulares) were expelled from the city's lands. [15]

Early Republican era Edit

In 1847, the city was taken by U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott, without a shot fired. The American garrison was besieged in the city from 14 September – 12 October 1847 by the irregular forces of General Joaquín Rea and later reinforced by Antonio López de Santa Anna. The siege was broken by the force of General Joseph Lane that fought its way from Veracruz into the city after defeating Santa Ana in the Battle of Huamantla on 9 October 1847. Puebla was then the base for General Lane's campaign against General Rea and the other guerrillas that harassed the U. S. Army line of communications. These forces left in July 1848 after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was ratified. [15]

During the French intervention in Mexico on 5 May 1862 in the Battle of Puebla, defending Mexican forces under Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army under Count de Lorencez. The city's name was changed to Puebla de Zaragoza in 1862, by a decree issued by Benito Juárez and the holiday "5 de Mayo" (Cinco de Mayo) is a major annual event here. [5] The city was attacked again by the French in 1863, who succeeded in taking it. French forces left in 1866 and reconstruction began in 1867. [15]

During the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, Puebla remained important culturally and economically. It had a thriving textile industry at this time. Immigration from Europe was encouraged and people from Spain, Italy, Germany, France and Lebanon came to live in the city.

In what became a precursor to the Mexican Revolution, siblings Carmen, Máximo y Aquiles Serdán were behind one of the first conspiracies against the Porfirio Diaz government. Their plans were discovered and their house, located on 6 Oriente street was surrounded by federal troops. A gun battle ensued, killing both Serdán brothers on 18 November 1910. [5] During the Mexican Revolution, the city was taken by forces under General Pablo Gonzalez Garza, then later was under Zapatista control.

Recent events Edit

From 1931 until the end of the 20th century, growth of the city spurred the absorption of the municipalities of Ignacio Mariscal, San Felipe Hueyotlipan, Resurreccion, San Jeronimo Caleras, San Miguel Canoa and San Francisco Totimehuacán into the city. [7] In 1950, by decree of the state congress, the city received the title of Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza. In 1977, the federal government declared the city a Zone of Historical Monuments. In 1987, the historic centre of Puebla was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [15]

The City of Puebla submitted its candidacy to hold the headquarters of the Free Trade Area of the Americas, and briefly served as interim secretariat headquarters until negotiations were stopped in 2005. [16] [17]

The municipality is located in the west-central region of the State of Puebla, bordering the municipalities of Santo Domingo Huehutlán, San Andrés Cholula, Teopantlán, Amozoc, Cuauthinchán, Tzicatlacoyan, Cuautlancingo, and Ocoyucan, and the State of Tlaxcala. [7]

As municipal seat, the city of Puebla is the government for 482 other communities [18] with a total area of 534.32km2. [7] However, 94% of the municipality's population of 1,485,941 lives in the city proper. [18]

Environment Edit

Most of the municipality has been deforested, including the lower portions of the Malinche volcano and all the Sierra de Amozoc, due to logging and seasonal farming. [7]

The Sierra del Tentzon and higher elevations of Malinche volcano still conserve the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests ecoregion – with forests of pine, holm oak and other tree species. [7] In the pine forests, Montezuma Pine (Pinus montezumae) is generally predominant, with Hartweg's Pine (Pinus hartwegii) and Pinus teocote in dry areas with shallow soils. Pine-fir forests are composed almost entirely of Hartweg's Pine (Pinus hartwegii) and Sacred Fir (Abies religiosa).

Animal life consists mostly of small mammals such as rabbits and skunks, as well as birds such as owls, buzzards and wild waterfowl. [7]

Economy Edit

Some agriculture still takes place in the municipality but environmental degradation and the growth of the city is making this a smaller sector of the economy. Crops raised include corn, beans, wheat, oats, avocados, pears, apples, peaches, choke cherries, Mexican hawthorns, nuts and white sapotes. Most agriculture takes place on small plots on the edges of the municipality. Similarly livestock such as cattle, pigs, sheep and horses are raised. [7]

Industry accounts for about eighty percent of the economy and is mostly based in the outskirts of the city as well as in some surrounding municipalities. Main products include basic metals, chemicals, electrical items and textiles. The main employers are Hylsa and the Volkswagen automotive plant. A growing sector is food processing. Many industries are consolidated into parks such as the 5 de Mayo Industrial Park, the Resurrección Industrial Zone and the Puebla 2000 Industrial Park. Shopping centers include the Angelópolis Lifestyle Center and Parque Puebla.

Puebla is located at the Valley of Puebla also known as the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan, a large valley surrounded on four sides by the mountains and volcanoes of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. It is located 40 kilometres (25 miles) east of the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes, giving residents views of their snow-topped peaks. Due to the proximity to the Popocatépetl, Puebla is some times exposed to the ash and dust that emanate from the volcano during its active periods, the most recent occurring on 8 May 2013.

La Malinche dormant volcano is located to the north of the city, and the Pico de Orizaba to the east. Hydrologically, the city is part of the Atoyac river basin the river runs through northern, eastern and southern portions of the municipality, and connects to the Lake of Valsequillo, where the Manuel Ávila Camacho dam has been built. Other rivers that cross the area are the Alseseca and San Francisco.

Under the Köppen climate classification (Köppen: Cwb), Puebla features a Subtropical highland climate. The climate is moderated by its high altitude of 2,200 m (7,217.85 ft). As a result, it rarely gets truly hot in Puebla, with an average of only three days seeing temperatures rise above 29 °C (84 °F). Night temperatures are cool at all times of the year. Puebla experiences dry cold winters from October through February, warm summers from March to May, and a monsoon season from June to September. The valley has a warm temperate climate while the higher elevations have cold climates. Most rain falls in the summer. [7]

Climate data for Puebla, Mexico (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
32.0
(89.6)
35.0
(95.0)
36.0
(96.8)
36.5
(97.7)
34.0
(93.2)
33.0
(91.4)
33.0
(91.4)
32.0
(89.6)
33.0
(91.4)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
23.9
(75.0)
25.9
(78.6)
27.5
(81.5)
28.0
(82.4)
26.4
(79.5)
25.3
(77.5)
25.3
(77.5)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
24.4
(75.9)
23.6
(74.5)
25.2
(77.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
15.0
(59.0)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.4
(66.9)
18.4
(65.1)
18.4
(65.1)
18.2
(64.8)
17.3
(63.1)
15.8
(60.4)
14.5
(58.1)
17.2
(63.0)
Average low °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.2
(43.2)
8.4
(47.1)
10.5
(50.9)
11.7
(53.1)
12.5
(54.5)
11.6
(52.9)
11.5
(52.7)
11.5
(52.7)
9.8
(49.6)
7.2
(45.0)
5.4
(41.7)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.0
(33.8)
5.0
(41.0)
5.0
(41.0)
4.0
(39.2)
4.5
(40.1)
2.0
(35.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.5
(23.9)
−6.0
(21.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.0
(0.47)
8.5
(0.33)
9.4
(0.37)
28.8
(1.13)
83.5
(3.29)
193.5
(7.62)
161.6
(6.36)
172.4
(6.79)
197.1
(7.76)
79.1
(3.11)
18.0
(0.71)
5.2
(0.20)
969.1
(38.15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.6 1.7 2.4 6.2 12.7 18.2 17.9 18.2 18.7 10.0 3.1 1.2 111.9
Average relative humidity (%) 53 53 47 52 55 63 67 68 65 62 52 60 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 263 280 285 266 245 200 212 202 183 228 259 253 2,876
Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico National (humidity 1981–2000) [19] [20]
Source 2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010) [21]

Parks, squares and districts Edit

The historical and cultural value of Puebla's architecture is a major reason the city was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Various styles and techniques such as Baroque, Renaissance and Classic are represented here in over 5,000 buildings included in the catalogue. [22] The historic centre is filled with churches, monasteries, mansions and the like, mostly done in gray cantera stone, red brick and decorated with multicolored tiles. Puebla is also considered to be the "cradle of Mexican Baroque" both in architecture and in the decorative arts, [23] and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. [3]

In spite of the many shopping malls that exist in Puebla today, the Zócalo, the main square, remains the cultural, political and religious center of the city. [24] Many notable buildings surround the Zocalo including City Hall, the Casa de los Muñecos and the Cathedral. Most of the streets in Puebla are named on a numbering system, which centers on the northwest corner of the Zocalo. [25] El Parián is an arts and crafts market, within walking distance of the plaza. It consists mostly of permanent stalls but there is an area provided for vendors who visit and sell their wares on blankets spread on the ground. [11]

Cuexcomate is a geyser cone thirteen meters tall with a diameter of 23 meters. The geyser is inactive and located in the La Libertad neighborhood of the city of Puebla. There is a spiral staircase going down into the crater itself. [26] [27]

Museums and galleries Edit

The Amparo Museum is housed in two colonial-era buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries that were popularly known as El Hospitalito. One was the Hospital of San Juan de Letrán, which was converted into a college for women. The other is a mansion from the 18th century. It was joined to the hospital and then became the "Deposito de Mujeres Casadas" (Refuge of Married Women) This was established in 1606 for women whose husbands were gone for long periods of time. However, the idea was not popular with women and in 1609, it became the asylum for "lost women," those obligated to be secluded for some reason. This facility was moved to another building and the building became part of the women's college founded next door, then a convent. The museum has fourteen exhibition halls with pottery, steles and sculptures from the Zapotec, Huasteca, Maya, Olmec and Aztec cultures as well as fine furniture and religious objects from the colonial period and examples of contemporary art. These represent the three epochs of Mexican history, pre-Columbian, colonial-era and post-Independence. Seven of the halls are dedicated to pre-Columbian pieces. [28] [29]

The Biblioteca Palafoxiana (Palafoxiana Library) was established in 1646 by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza for the Seminary of Puebla. He donated his own collection of 5,000 books to the College of San Juan to start the collection. It was the first library in the Americas and is the only one to survive to the present day. The main room is in Baroque style and was constructed in 1773 by Bishop Francisco Fabian y Fuero who also named the institution after Palafox. Today the library contains over 42,000 books, 5,000 manuscripts and other items, which date from 1473 to 1910. The Library was named a Historic Monument of Mexico (Monumento Histórico de México) and UNESCO has made it part of Memory of the World. [30]

The Centro Cultural Santa Rosa is housed in a building that dates from the 17th century which originally was housing for Dominican nuns. Later, it became a convent named in honour of Saint Rose of Lima. This is where the story of the invention of mole poblano takes place. In 1869, it ceased being a convent and became a psychiatric hospital. In the 20th century the Ceramic Museum was founded in the building's kitchen, with the rest of the building occupied as tenements for about 1500 people. In 1973, the Museo de Arte Cultural Poblano was founded and in 2000 the name was changed to the current one. The facility offers exhibitions, shows and art classes. [31]

The Museo de la Revolución (Museum of the Revolution) was the home of Aquiles Serdán in the very early 20th century. He was politically active in the anti-reelection (of President Porfirio Diaz) movement of the time and was accused of distributing propaganda against Díaz. Police assaulted the building and Serdán and his family fought back, until Aquiles was killed. President Francisco I. Madero stayed at the home in honor of Serdán. Shortly thereafter, the family moved to Mexico City and the building became tenements and stores. Decades later, the federal government acquired the building from the family to convert it into the museum that is here today. [32]

Fort Loreto and Fort Guadalupe are located in the Centro Civico 5 de Mayo part of the city. Both were instrumental to the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862. The chapel of the Loreto fort contains a former chapel, which is now the Museo de la No Intervención (Museum of Non-Intervention). This is to commemorate a non-aggression pact signed by Mexico and Central American and two South American countries in the 1960s. The Museo de Guerra del Fuerte (Fort War Museum) de Loreto y Guadalupe is located in this fort as well. This museum contains cannons, shotguns, swords, documents and other objects related to this battle. [33]

The Galería de Arte Contemporáneo y Diseño (Gallery of Contemporary Art and Design) is dedicated to visual arts such as painting, sculpture, ceramics, metal etching, photography, video, and others and belongs to the Secretary of Culture of the state of Puebla. It is housed in the old La Violeta textile factory, which dates back to 1908, and was one only many factories in this area at that time. This building was renovated between 1995 and 1998 for this museum. [34]

The International Museum of the Baroque is a museum of Baroque art designed by Japanese architect Toyoo Itō. It opened on February 4, 2016.

The Museo de José Mariano Bello y Acedo (José Mariano Bello y Acedo Museum) was initially founded with the private collection of the Bello family, along with works donated by friends. It originally began as a private museum or pinacotheca. Upon José Mariano's death, the house and collection was bequeathed to the city. [35]

The Casa de Alfeñique is named for the intricate mortar work that covers its façade. Alfeñique is a kind of sugar and almond candy. It was constructed by Antonio Santamaría de Incháurregui for Juan Ignacio Morales, who was a master ironsmith. The façades also contain ironwork balconies, cornices and a crown. The house was left to the state by Alejandro Ruiz Olavarrieta in 1896. It was first used to house the first public museum in the city of Puebla. The collection contains more than 1,500 pieces of a historical nature. [36]

The Museo de Arte (Museum of Art) originally was constructed to be the Temple of San Pedro, founded in 1541 to be a church and a hospital. Eventually it was established as the Hospital of San Pedro y San Pablo under the direction of the Cathedral of Tlaxcala. It was functioning as a hospital by 1544, but it incurred major expenditures, forcing it to limit service to men only. The arches of the main courtyard were completed in 1640, as well as it fountain and nursing units. In the first half of the 18th century, the hospital ceased to be under the direct control of the Cathedral, passing to the monks of the order of San Juan de Dios. In the latter half of the century, it began to house soldiers in order to improve its finances. The hospital underwent major reforms in the early 19th century to improve medical care, and began to receive medical students from the Medical-Surgical Academy of Puebla. In 1867, the facility became the Hospital General del Estado. In 1917, the hospital moved to new facilities in the city. Through most of the 20th century, the building was used for a wide-variety of purposes. In 1998, a project to restore the building for its use as Puebla Museum of Viceregal Art. In 2002, this museum was converted into the San Pedro Museum of Art, which exhibits works from various epochs. [37]

The Museum Workshop of Erasto Cortés Juárez was the home of one of the major figures in fine and graphic arts in Puebla in the 20th century. The museum was founded in 2000 and contains more than 400 pieces of both his work and personal effects. The museum also hosts temporary exhibits, workshops and seminars. [38]


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